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61
This message it is official reply of
Tektronix / Keithley Europe regarding spare parts and repairs about their products.


Originally I did start my research, so to discover necessary spare parts codes so to order them from Tektronix / Keithley Europe.
We are talking here about cheap consumables (plastic handle, rubber boot, a rubber keyboard), the small things which easily may get damaged or get lost.

After two months time and several emails exchange with Tektronix / Keithley-Europe, the outcome this is an unorthodox reply.

Tektronix / Keithley Europe this has internal policy and this is not supplying a single spare part at consumer hands.
Tektronix / Keithley Europe, Product support team this has the expectation that its customer with a broken plastic handle, he will ship the instrument from Greece to Germany, him paying double shipping cost (send & return) ,  and total bill this including spare part value and labor fee.



While such policies they do find me against them, and personally I would never give my euro coin buying new equipment's from such brands, by these news I do feel happy.
I feel happy because with such policies those causing despair at current Tektronix / Keithley customers base, these people (customers) in their desperation they are now forced to settle for less (speaking of reselling value) on eBay or elsewhere regarding used equipment's.


In the past three years Tektronix / Keithley this replaced two presidents, and a third one just take over in April 2019, now it seems that no one was capable to foresee impact of their own decisions (company strategy) regarding influence of their planning in the market of used equipment which this is not under their control.
62
Vast majority of people not working professionally in electronics repairs they are unable to imagine what makes a multimeter this now called as Outdated.

Additionally many people now starting their engagement with electronics (learning), they are also unaware or deliberately closing their eyes at accepting that even passive electronics parts they are now made with better technology.

Within 2019 a multimeter this must be also a component tester this be capable to test electronic components of our times starting for a single resistor.

Basic carbon resistor this is now grandfather of later produced Through-Hole Metal Film Resistors and of recently produced thick film resistors.
Today both Through-Hole and SMD (surface mount resistor) they follow more tight tolerances than the ancient standard of resistance tolerances at 10% or 5%.

Use of thick film technology in resistors, these helped resistors to be made at lower resistance tolerances 1.0% and down to 0.1% or lower.

Today SMD (surface mount resistors) these now replaced at about 80% the use of full size carbon resistors.
Industry leaders in production of electronic circuits, they also set new standards, they requested from resistors industry this to deliver small size and lower tolerances’, both requirements’ assisting in production of higher precision electronics.

Neither fresh produced cement resistors escaped from enjoying fresh upgraded tight tolerances close to 0.5%.
https://www.ittsb.eu/forum/index.php?topic=1320.0

Precision made passive electronics these now raising the need for more precisely made multimeter to be used for electronics components inspection and repair.
Vast majority of surface mount resistors they are now made at 1% tolerance and even lower if it is requested.

Therefore higher resistor tolerances’ of 5% or 10% these are now mostly a toy for hobbyists and or for use at not-critical applications.
Not critical applications this translates today to Low-End electronics that no one will care to send for repair because of their low price.

Outdated multimeter this is now the one which does not have necessary precision tolerance (error %) so this to measure accurately down to 1% tolerance resistor.
But beware that this conclusion it is to characterize and separate appropriate multimeter to use from inappropriate ones.

My engagement all these years with electrical metrology this teaches me of safe rule to follow, this is no other than using measuring equipment five times better than DUT (device under test) or passive component under test.

First conclusion this is us following industry as this running ahead, we have no other choice than making buying decisions according to our electrical or electronics applications that we selects engaging with.
Benchtop 6 ½ multimeter accuracy at measuring resistors was down to 0.05% (12 months CAL) twelve years ago, in this decade several handheld meters they also have respectable accuracy and tight error tolerances for measuring newest resistors production (finest made one).

Recently I did engage with true high precision resistors at 0.005% tolerance.
And despite the fact that ITTSB blog still has finest HH multimeter samples in it collection, no one was qualifying measuring such high precision resistors at high resolution.
Only a dedicated high precision resistance-meter this retailed at 3000 Euro was capable to deliver measurements that you can believe and trust.
Now that is two years later than my first high precision resistor tests, I did use as comparison point also a precision DMM, this retailed at 1600 ~ 1800 Euro price point.
In my surprise this DMM came close speaking of measured values at most of it measuring ranges, this manage to deliver -0.06% deviation from measurement delivered by dedicated resistance meter which this including self-calibration every 4 minutes.
This DMM is not calibrated for six years, therefore such tiny drift of -0.06% this is not the issue.
But DMM measurement repeatability was not on par with dedicated high precision resistance-meter when this was challenged at seven digits resolution, instead first five digits was correct in most of tests. 

Best way seeing or thinking of a multimeter today, this is seeing it as to be a ladder, if you choose cheapest sorter ladder? Soon enough you will feel helpless when working with resistor tolerances at 1%.

What If you choose medium height low cost ladder?  Measurement stability and repeatability both are sacrificed and only emotionally you will have the confidence that your meter can do the trick when in reality this digital device it is unable to handle what is supposed that it will.

What If you choose medium height but high quality ladder?  Well this is the ideal for most applications by excluding the ones which probably pay more in the food chain of electrical applications.         
 
What If you choose among highest ones and highest in quality ladder?  By following this option, you are now gained compatibility with 99% of applications hidden in industrial sites.
Production of potato chips all having identical shape and flavor this counts it success at monitoring temperature by the use of platinum temperature sensors, that is a resistor (sensor) changing it value according temperature, 1 °C temperature change will cause a 0.384 ohm change in resistance.
In case of half degree Celsius this is 0.192 ohm change in resistance.
And also ten steps in a single Celsius this represents 0.038 ohm change in resistance.
The chart used for Celsius to Resistance value conversion, this is using 5 digits resolution at 10 Ohms range.
Pt 100 high accuracy sensor this is available at about 0.06% accuracy specifications, a five times better in specification multimeter this is what it is required. 
https://www.ittsb.eu/forum/index.php?topic=1506.0

If there is a final conclusion this is just one, if you ever come close to get a job this demanding from you having a high quality ladder in your tool box, and this is missing, you will simply never get the job, or if you do? You will never deliver upon customer expectations and your reputation if any this will be destroyed.

Electrical work this is you cooperating with science, you are not in position to set your own rules, but to follow best practices available for your own benefit. 
63
This journey started by me exploring Precision Industrial RTD Probes ... Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)

I did find brief information’s relative to Platinum Resistance RTD and I am now even aware of a manufacturing challenge when such probes operate at above 400C as their new enemy this is oxidation at Platinum element surface.

This new Blog topic it is not aiming to be some sort of RTD probe engineering analysis, but to rather help any newcomer whom wishes to explore measuring range and ohm values of Pt100 RTD.

It is not the first time when scientific community this making charts and most explanations needed for newcomers these they are missing.

Very recently I got my own precision benchtop multimeter this has temperature measurement only by the use of RTD 385 / Pt100 probe (100 Ohm).
6 ½ digits resolution for temperature measurement this looks as extraordinary in my eyes, when vast majority of handheld multimeter with a K type thermocouple they deliver three digits resolution.
 
Because of such high resolution at six digits, my next though was of me finding Pt100 temperature sensors chart in 1°C steps.

I did find many but I could not understand How-to about regarding (translating) such 1°C steps.
Originally I was able to understand only the relation of Temperature and Ohms at round numbers 10, 50, 100, 400 Celsius.
After receiving a bit of help from the Holy Spirit I did realize that horizontal chart this is 1C steps.

Now from 0C and in to the positive curve, resistance value (in steps) this increases, and at 0C and negative curve (- 200) resistance value (in steps) this decreases.
 
Today I have understanding that it was quite normal for me about getting that much confused (as newcomer visitor at the RTD world).

Such conversion table (Resistance / Celsius) this is work of someone else, and no one can be familiar with that in just of few minutes of time.
 
Bellow they are pictures from Pt100 compete chart, which my recommendation to you this is to download and print them for your reference.  :)
64
No matter how fancy it looks all this adjusting circuit and LCD (screen), actual delivery of power this is defined at XL4015 datasheet.
Actual handling wattage this is related to input voltage and load.
XL4015 Efficiency VS Output current this is tricky, this was tested with input voltage of 8, 12, 24 and 36V by it product designer. 

Now my own PSU source at final testing this shown as very generous delivering 118,8VA at Max ADJ output that is 26,40 VDC at 4,5A.

My ZK-J5X this has active cooling, a fan gets 5VDC and spinning gently by sucking air in the box (Crystal Jar).
It is interesting that ZK-J5X does not steal any input voltage at max setting, neither few millivolts.

It is also interesting that 4.5A limiting by the chip this is stable at all output voltages, I did tests at 1,2V – 4,2 – 14,4 and at max 26,40.

So, here it is, this is another unique design regarding assembly an Crystal-Jar Battery charger, this close enough to handle (charge) even 2x car / motorcycle or UPS battery cells.

Now in real life, its one battery cell this comes with charging specifications’ (written instructions - limits).
While I do feel confidence that this setup will not face overheat issues, in order to avoid overload and stress of this good in quality pulsing power supply (Japan), I will never force it this delivering higher current than 3A (PSU max specification this is 5A). 

Enjoy the pictures !!  8)
65
I think as good idea establishing a link between this topic with the other relative one.
https://www.ittsb.eu/forum/index.php?topic=1482.0
66
DIY work this looking as factory work ... Only Kiriakos can do that.   :)
67
Specific VFD Dot matrix glass this is made in Japan by Noritake Itron, still in production and available stock can be found in retail market.

This is what I am going to keep as Good News  :)

Such VFD Dot matrix glass this can be found and at some Yokogawa source-meter SMU.
68
A quick product video this is now available at YouTube. (1:17 Introducing the 8588A Reference Multimeter)

Here it is a screen shot of ppm stability per year.
If we accepts these stats as top performance of modern Reference Multimeter (at 2019 with Digitizer), then you may imagine how far from it are other previously made precision DMM ...

What seems as interesting observation, this is a judgement which comes from screenshot below,  this is that even with technology in use of our times, mastering of ppm stability of other electrical parameters than DCV, this is still a huge challenge.

69
BRYMEN BM878 Insulation Tester Combination Multimeter review
By the eye of the Industrial electrician.
Written By Kiriakos Triantafillou – Greece 25 April © 2019

https://www.ittsb.eu/BRYMEN-BM878-Review.html
70
Enjoy a lot...great restoration to a like-new condition.

Marco
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